These notes were created by Danie Ondinea for a Sydney Metropolitan Wildlife Services seminar “Urban Wildlife Ecology – The Balancing Act”.
Why be concerned about wildlife?
What is the role and value of wildlife in our bushland and gardens?
Native wildlife is an essential part of a balanced ecosystem.
Flowers are pollinated by:
- small possums, gliders, antechinus
- insects such as moths, beetles, bees, flies, weevils, thrips, wasps, mosquitoes, sawflies and fungus gnats (all your favourites!)
Seed and spore are distributed by:
- ground mammals such as bandicoots, native rats and potoroos
Insect pests are eaten by:
- mammals such as gliders, microbats, bush rats, antechinus, bandicoots
- spiders, parasitic wasps and other invertebrates
Nutrients are recycled (and soils improved) by the activity of :
- earthworms and other soil invertebrates
- bandicoots, lyrebirds, brush-turkeys and other diggers
- herbivorous insects
Native wildlife is also an inspiring and beautiful component of urban bushland, parks and gardens
Also, as a nation we made a commitment to conserve Australia’s biodiversity.
At the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992, Australia and 153 other nations signed the Convention on Biodiversity (and ratified it on 18 June 1993).
The objectives of the convention are:
- the conservation of biological diversity
- the sustainable use of its components and
- the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilisation of the genetic resource.
The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity is an indispensable foundation of ecologically sustainable development and is vital for maintaining the planet’s life support system. Australia’s future economic, trading and social well being depend on maintenance of Australia’s and the world’s biological resources.
The National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia’s Biological Diversity which was published in 1996 is the principal means for co-ordinated implementation of the Rio convention. It sets out actions to strengthen efforts to conserve and sustainably use our biodiversity, to increase our understanding and ensure that our biodiversity is conserved for everyone. Copies are available from Environment Australia.
In 1999, NSW met its obligation to prepare a state strategy and the New South Wales Biodiversity Strategy was released. It is a statement of commitment by the NSW Government. It outlines the objectives and the actions in 5 key areas considered necessary to conserve biodiversity in NSW.
Local government also has a key role to play in biodiversity conservation.
- Councils manage significant areas of land and water and can implement management practices which conserve (or destroy) biodiversity.
- Councils carry out many activities, such as waste disposal and landscaping, which may impact on local biodiversity.
- Councils authorise the majority of private sector development which may impact on local biodiversity.
- Councils can carry out community education campaigns on the value of biodiversity and how it can be conserved.
Many local councils have written their own biodiversity strategies, often within environmental or Agenda 21 strategies.
Finding out about local wildlife and its habitat requirements.
Here are some ideas for sources of information about local wildlife. All these sources are of varying quality and some you have to pay to access. Try to find out about insects and other invertebrates as well as fish when relevant to your site.
- Staff involved in natural resource management
- State of the Environment Reports
- Local History (or Local Studies) Section of libraries
- Various studies carried out to establish the impacts of proposed local developments (EIS, FIS, SIS).
- Department of Environment and Conservation – Atlas of NSW Wildlife
- Australian Museum Business Services
- Bird, frog, reptile, natural history clubs and study groups
- Local naturalists (particularly retired amateur naturalists and local bush regenerators)
- Personal observations
- Request for information in local paper (especially with relevant article)
Now try to find out about the specific habitat requirements of your local wildlife and particularly those whose numbers are dropping. Naturalists and books will help with natural habitats. Talking to local naturalists will give you some idea which local fauna is in trouble.
Here are some general habitat requirements for fauna groups:
- A diversity of habitat and vegetation structure
- Shelter and nesting sites such as tree hollows
- Display sites
- Food resources including seed, fruit, nectar, a range of prey such as insects, reptiles, fish, small mammals, etc.
Live in a variety of habitats where there are mature trees with dead limbs or rough bark on which they roost motionless and camouflaged during the day. Eat centipedes, spiders, cockroaches, frogs and mice.
Live in dense undergrowth in a variety of habitats. Eat a variety of small insects.
Superb Fairy-wren (Blue Wren):
Live in habitats where there is a combination of dense low shrubs and clearings including golf courses, parks and gardens. Eat a variety of small insects.
- A diversity of habitat and vegetation structure
- Shelter and rest sites such as mature trees with hollows
- Safe travel routes such as connecting canopy
Common Brushtail Possum:
Inhabit a variety of forest and woodland habitats, frequently in suburban gardens. Make nest in hollows, holes in stream banks, rabbit burrows, roofs and sheds. Eat succulent shoots, flowers, fruit, buds, bark of native and cultivated shrubs and trees, occasionally meat, birds’ eggs and nestlings.
Common Ring-Tailed Possum:
Variety of forest and woodland habitats, often in suburban gardens. Make globular nest of leaves, twigs and ferns in leafy saplings or shrubs (including Lantana), on a branch or in a hollow. Occasionally in roofs. Eat flowers and leaves of Eucalypts (especially E. piperita), cultivated plant parts, flowers and buds and native and orchard fruit, possibly insects.
Variety of habitats including forest and suburban gardens. Nest and roost in dried grass in vegetation and in hollows. Dig for insect larvae, earthworms and other burrowing invertebrates (including Funnel-web Spiders) and succulent plant parts. Leave conical holes in lawns. Make load squeak when disturbed.
Live in forests or scrub with dense ground cover, sleeping during the day in burrows under rocks or logs. Eat fern stems, bark, leaves, pollen, flowers, fruits, seed and fungi, as well as earthworms, insects and their larvae.
Insectivorous Bats (Microbats):
Roost in tree hollows, under bark, in caves, stormwater culverts, buildings and roofs. Eat insects.
Common in rainforest and well-watered Eucalypt forest with a relatively dense canopy. Feed at night on rainforest fruits (figs, palms) and nectar and pollen of Eucalypts, Turpentines, Banksias and Bottlebrush.
- Dense moist understorey and groundcover near clean water
- Logs, rocks and bark for shelter
- Food such as insects, snails, worms, spiders, small lizards and other frogs
Green and Golden Bell Frog:
An endangered species listed in the Threatened Species Conservation Act (1995). Presently occur most typically in highly disturbed sites with small soaks, floodplain depressions, ponds, creeks or small lakes with emergent vegetation and few predatory fish, in grassy surrounds in an open sunny area. Many of the waterbodies used as breeding sites are ephemeral. Adults eat crickets, cockroaches, grasshoppers and sometimes other frogs.
(Brown) Striped Marsh Frog
Live in most freshwater environments including fishponds, ornamental pools and swimming pools, sheltering under logs, rocks or leaf litter during the day
(Common) Eastern Froglet
Live near creeks, ponds, swamps, and areas of seepage and shelter beneath rocks, vegetation and leaf litter
- Rocky outcrops, boulders, logs and leaf litter
- Sunny basking sites near dense low vegetation.
Eastern Water Dragon:
Live near water – creeks, rivers, foreshores, fish ponds, ornamental ponds and swimming pools. Often use overhanging branches. Eat small reptiles, frogs, insects, flowers, fruit, snails, worms, small mammals such as mice and some vegetation.
Live in rock crevices, hollows, animal burrows, under fallen timber, in drain pipes, under concrete and in old brickwork and stonework. Eat snails, insects, fruit, flowers, fungi and carrion.
Live in and around tree trunks, rocks, logs, ground litter, low cover near basking sites, concrete paths, fences and walls. Eat small invertebrates.
Shelter beneath small rocks, in crevices and caves, in and under logs. Also found in garages. Are nocturnal. Eat invertebrates.
Red-bellied Black Snake:
Inhabit swampy areas and creeks, need rocks to sunbake. Shelter in dense vegetation, hollow logs, under large flat rocks. Eat frogs, lizards, mice, eels, fish and other snakes.
Eastern Snake-necked Turtle (syn. Long-necked Tortoise):
Inhabit still waters of lagoons, swamps, large ponds or slow creeks. Bask on logs and rocks. Eat fish, vegetation and freshwater shellfish, yabbies and insects.
Insects and other Invertebrates
- Minimal pesticide use
- Available foodplants or prey
- Appropriate habitat to complete entire life cycle
Freshwater and Estuarine Fish and other aquatic fauna
- Clean water
- Instream objects such as rocks, logs and aquatic vegetation
- Bankside vegetation including mangroves
- Intertidal areas such as mudflats
- A range of water types such as deep pools, riffles and backwaters
- Bank stability to provide shelter, shade, safe foraging and breeding sites
- Food such as aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, molluscs, plankton, algae and other aquatic plants, and fish
Recognising the habitat components already on your site (both natural and unnatural!)
The most important attributes you can bring to this work are patience and curiosity. Use the information you have collected on natural habitats and your imagination to help you recognise both the natural and unnatural habitat components on your site.
I suggest you give yourself a year at least to try to work out what wildlife is actually using your site, particularly the areas you hate and want to get rid of first. One law of nature I have learnt is that whatever part of my site I really want to fix up first will be of most use to wildlife! So when you look at a weedy section or a pile of unwanted building material ask ‘who’s home could that be?’
Most mature trees (including weed trees such as Large-leaved Privet) provide important food, shelter and nest sites for a wide range of native animals. Dead mature trees are particularly important and sought after.
Small bush birds and possums find shelter and nest sites in dense and/or spikey understorey including weeds such as Lantana, Ochna (Mickey Mouse plant) and Small-leaved Privet.
Common Bluetongues, Echidnas and Long-nosed Bandicoots and possibly ground birds such as Bush Stone-curlews are sheltered by logs and rocks but also concrete blocks, sheet metal, car bodies and old pipes and timber.
Grey-headed and Little Red Flying Foxes find summer shade in dense canopies including those created by exotic vines such as Morning Glory.
Waterways and wetlands provide important habitat for a diverse range of wildlife. However, even weedy, garbage-strewn stormwater drains provide habitat for some of our hardier frog species and many different insects. Also, weedy, garbage-strewn wetland margins provide shelter for our native fish and other aquatic fauna.
Piles of timber, prunings and compost heaps provide the rotting organic matter essential for many beetles to complete their lifecycles. (Beetles are this planet’s most successful animal group so they deserve consideration!). And, of course, other invertebrates are using degraded and unnatural habitats everywhere!
I’m sure you’ll have experience of other unnatural or unexpected habitats.
Here are some guidelines for assessing isolated and/or degraded potential habitat areas such as gardens and industrial sites:
Elements that increase the habitat value of an area include:
- Proximity to a bushland reserve
- Mature trees particularly eucalypts
- Intact understorey particularly indigenous species
- Native fauna present
- Exposed rock, logs and leaf litter present
- Clean water present.
Elements that decrease the habitat value of an area include:
- Minimal or single species understorey
- Long distance from a bushland reserve
- Closeness to a busy road
- Within range of foxes and roaming cats
- High population of Pied Currawongs and/or other very territorial or predatory birds
Planning and implementing a restoration project which protects existing habitat
My guess is that you don’t want a site full of rusting car bodies, concrete blocks and weedy vegetation!
However, my concern is that when we want to convert our park, garden or bushland site from an area with unwanted trees and shrubs, weeds and garbage to what we believe will be a more wildlife-friendly area, the transition period can be devastating, if not fatal, for the wildlife already dependent on the site.
It may turn out that your site was providing an important island of food or shelter in an otherwise inhospitable area. If this habitat is removed all at once some animals will die during the removal or when trying to escape. Others may get away but not return because of lack of travel routes or because it takes so long for the regenerated plants or new plantings to mature and provide resources.
For a landscaping project, try to come up with a fairly flexible design which will provide resources for the local wildlife and a beautiful and functional (and not too obsessively neat) garden or park for you. Try to provide year round flowering and fruiting with the plants you select. Remember to consider other components such as clean water which is safe to access; logs, rocks and leaf litter; and sanctuary areas which are rarely disturbed and which will provide important refuge and breeding sites. The books and people you already know about will outline the issues to consider.
For landscaping and bush regeneration projects, devise a staged work plan for converting what you have to what you want while maintaining the habitat of the existing wildlife. This plan will need to be very flexible and take into account the changes in wildlife use that will inevitably occur during the alterations.
Here are some strategies for protecting and restoring habitat:
- Locate (and map) important existing and potential habitat areas. Consider the habitat potential of weeds, unwanted trees and shrubs, old building materials and car bodies, etc. Potentially important habitat areas can be assessed by the existence of remnant vegetation, mature trees (particularly Angophoras and Eucalypts), dense understorey (particularly indigenous species), native fauna, exposed rock, logs and leaf litter and clean water. Look out for bird nests and Ringtail Possum dreys (nests) in dense understorey (including Lantana), listen for calls of nestling birds and feeding parent birds to indicate nest sites. Wet and waterlogged areas are also important.
- Identify potential wildlife sanctuary areas which are currently unused by humans and which could be restored to enhance the likelihood of them remaining undisturbed by humans and predatory animals in the future.
- Assess the habitat provided by weeds before attempting removal. For example, vines in trees provide shelter for roosting and nesting birds, and Ringtail Possum dreys.
- Avoid carrying out weed removal in areas providing important habitat for existing wildlife until nearby substitute habitat is provided. If necessary, in important habitat areas, carry out target weeding of problem species such as exotic vines in native trees and then leave the site undisturbed until adjacent sites are providing shelter and food resources.
- Try to plan weed removal so that it can be carried out in a mosaic pattern leaving patches of undisturbed habitat adjacent to worked areas to maintain shelter and food resources and reduce predation and erosion.
- Try to carry out major weed removal outside the main local bird (and other wildlife) breeding seasons. This will often be spring and early summer.
- Try to link habitat areas with a vegetated corridor using locally collected indigenous plant material.
- Plant around existing mature trees to create a dense, shrubby understorey or a group of same or similar species trees indigenous to the area. These plantings will be more attractive to the fauna which use them than individual trees. Also small migratory birds such as Yellow-faced Honeyeaters and Silvereyes will head for groups of trees which provide rest sites or from which they can locate safe feeding areas.
- Try to repeat the density and species mix in revegetation sites that occur naturally in remnants with similar conditions (such as soil and aspect). Ensure that a diversity of habitats are retained or included in all habitat recreation projects (eg. open unmown grassy areas near dense shrubs and trees; areas retaining fallen timber, dead trees and shrubs; exposed rocky outcrops; open areas with exposed rock, sand and timber along watercourses to provide basking sites).
- Where Pied Currawongs are a problem, restrict the number of indigenous fruit-bearing plant species in revegetation work. Although these plants may provide food for small birds and other animals such as butterflies and flying-foxes, they may help increase the Pied Currawong population, a major predator of eggs, nestlings and occasionally adult birds.
- Where Noisy Miners are a problem, use insect, rather than bird, pollinated plants to avoid attracting these territorial honeyeaters. These plants include wattles, peas and tea-trees and will increase shelter, nesting and foraging sites for the small, insectivorous birds.
- Plant around the base of large outcropping boulders in regeneration/ revegetation areas to improve shelter provided to lizards and other fauna. Take care to select plants appropriate to the soil moisture levels.
- When weeding around the base of large boulders, previously secure wildlife shelters may be exposed, leaving wildlife vulnerable to predation. Try to carry out the work over a number of weeks or, preferably, partially weed, revegetate and allow planting to mature and provide cover and then repeat the process.
- With Tawny Frogmouths, Ringtail Possums and other more obvious wildlife, try to only approach or work in areas if resident animals are away from the site. If you need to approach the site be very quiet, talk in low, calm voices and avoid making any sudden, loud noises or calling out (unless trying to scare an animal away from a potentially dangerous situation).
- Before weeding, bagging, burning or otherwise altering recently undisturbed habitat (including weed piles), disturb by noise, agitation with sticks, or shaking to give resident animals an opportunity to get away and find alternative habitat. Preferably do this 24 hours or at least some hours beforehand.
- Plant waterways to maintain bank stability as well as provide important vegetated corridors and aquatic habitat.
- Try to minimise the impact of stormwater drains and boggy areas on remnant dry heathland and woodland. Plant margins of drains and boggy areas with native sedges, grasses, ferns and shrubs which can tolerate wet feet and occasionally drying out.
- Try to create small wetland areas to provide clean, safe water sources for drinking, cooling, bathing, sloughing skin and habitat for local birds, lizards, frogs and insects such as dragonflies. Care is needed with possible sources of water pollution.
- Replace logs, rocks and leaf litter wherever possible to provide shelter, and foraging and breeding sites for lizards and invertebrates. Use smaller branches for stabilizing steep slopes or in pile burns to stimulate regeneration.
- Leave stumps, approximately 30cm from the trunk, when branches are being removed from mature trees. These stumps allow for the formation of hollows which will provide nest or shelter sites for possums, parrots, owls, microbats, etc.
- Remove weed trees gradually to maintain the resources they are providing while allowing more sun to reach the ground and stimulate regeneration of understorey and native trees such as Angophoras and Eucalypts. Consider poisoning 1 or 2 weed trees every 5 years and informing local residents beforehand. Consider poisoning in autumn to mimic natural cycles of some exotic trees. If these dead trees can be left in situ they provide hollows, perches and other habitat.
- Artificial components such as nest boxes for birds, possums and microbats can also be considered but seek expert advice on construction, installation and monitoring.
- Care is needed when using weed mats. They may create a barrier to wildlife and to rainwater. However, they can be useful on fill slopes when used correctly and mulched.
Help local land managers (such as Councils, Schools, Golf Clubs, etc) to develop signage to promote community awareness and reduce disturbance of remnant vegetation and important habitat areas.
Help local land managers to develop programs to monitor the status of remnant vegetation, wildlife and important habitat areas and to control predators of wildlife.
Help make locally collected native plants available to the community (via Council and other nurseries) along with lists of fauna-attracting plants and guidelines for habitat plantings.
Selecting plants for revegetation and landscaping projects.
I suggest you use mainly plants indigenous to your local area. Not only will they be better adapted to your soils and climate and help reintroduce some local character into the neighbourhood but you can create habitat problems by planting species exotic to your area.
Some of these problems are:
- Invasion of nearby natural areas by planted species from wind or water or ant dispersed seed or dumped garden refuse (eg. Golden Wreath or Orange Wattle, Acacia saligna , from WA has naturalised in bushland around urban areas as has Cootamundra Wattle, Acacia baileyana, in the Blue Mountains and elsewhere)
- Invasion of distant natural areas by berry-bearing planted species from seed dispersed by fruit-eating birds (eg. Cotoneaster, African Olive, Camphor Laurel)
- Declining numbers of native animals with very specialised diets.
Glossy Black Cockatoos only eat the seeds of various species of Casuarina and they need large, old Eucalypts with deep hollows for nesting. Their populations are declining everywhere as land clearing removes their required habitat.
A number of small possums (Sugar and Squirrel Gliders and the rare Leadbeater’s Possum) have been shown to depend on Acacia gum as an important source of carbohydrate during winter when other sources of energy-rich food such as nectar, and some insects, are scarce. The quality and quantity of gum produced by different wattles are highly variable and it is the abundance of suitable wattles (and the availability of nest hollows) which determines the number of these possums.
The beautiful Birdwing Butterflies of north-eastern coastal Australia have larvae which feed exclusively on species of Aristolochia which are native rainforest vines. If they lay their eggs on the introduced garden plant Aristolochia elegans (Dutchman’s Pipe) the caterpillars fail to survive.
- Declining numbers of insectivorous and seed-eating animals. Only a small range of insects and spiders found on native vegetation are found on exotic plants (eg. Privet is eaten only by the larvae of one native hawk moth) and most exotic plants do not produce seeds that can be used by seed-eating birds.
- Increased numbers of some native bird species which are able to make use of a wide variety of plants and altered habitat. These birds include Pied Currawongs, Noisy Miners, Crested Pigeons, Rainbow Lorikeets, Red Wattlebirds, Australian Magpies, Welcome Swallows, Magpie-larks and Willie Wagtails.
While some increases in populations seem harmless, others appear to apply great pressure to the smaller birds whose populations are already under threat from clearing of habitat, reduction in food and shelter plants, etc.
The larger honeyeaters (like Noisy Miners and Red Wattlebirds) have quite unspecialised diets and are favoured by the high occurrence of planted hybrid Grevilleas which are heavy, year-round nectar-bearers. These birds are very aggressive to smaller native birds and will chase them out of their territories (and away from food plants).
Pied Currawongs will eat small birds and nestlings and appear to be having quite an impact on Sydney’s small bird populations.
- Disruption of natural cycles eg. bird migration
There is information which suggests that some honeyeaters are not migrating because of altered food resources. This may reduce pollination (and the long term viability) of distant forests.
Also, by using plants which are locally collected and indigenous to your site you will be making a contribution towards conserving local plant diversity.
Some thoughts on tidiness and timetables.
A word about messy looking sites. I believe you can have well designed, well planted and maintained wildlife habitat gardens and parks using a great range of plants. But if we are realistic, our wildlife needs a bit more room to move than “tidy” offers.
A site where wildlife is being considered, particularly a garden or park in transition to a wildlife paradise, will not look tidy to your average, neat suburban gardener.
Also, as you have probably realized, the suggestions I am making for protecting existing habitat could add years to restoration or landscaping projects. Possibly much longer than you had wished.
I truly believe that this type of approach is needed to protect urban wildlife. And hopefully, the flexibilty, patience and relaxed or ‘wild’ attitude I am asking you to bring to your projects will not only come up with sites which protect existing wildlife and attract many others but also landscapes which are better designed and a greater pleasure to you and the community.
So, try to be patient and enjoy the process of considering wildlife. If this is a new way of looking at bush regeneration or landscaping, I’m sure you’ll notice many more wildlife happenings than ever before. And I’m sure you’ll derive enormous pleasure from what you are learning about the local fauna and the part you are playing in keeping it local.
Summarising the principles
The guidelines I am suggesting for protecting and creating habitat during bush regeneration or landscaping projects are:
- Find out about your local wildlife and the natural habitat requirements of these species (particularly those with declining populations). Ask naturalists and check books.
- Try to work out what wildlife (including invertebrates) are using your site, particularly the unwanted sections. Give yourself at least a year to do this.
- Plan how to restore the bushland site or renovate the park or garden while maintaining habitat for existing wildlife.
- Plant or install alternative habitat. Wait for the plantings to mature (flower and fruit). Gradually remove (over years) the habitat unwanted by you. Observe how the tenants are responding!
- Try to be patient and remind yourself of the important role you are playing in maintaining Australia’s biodiversity.
And remember, it’s not a mess, it’s wildlife habitat!
Berry, S. (1992) Wattles and Wildlife. In Land for Wildlife Note No. 17 Dept. of Conservation & Environment, Vic.
Buchanan, R. (1992) Birds, Beasts & Seed Dispersal. In proceedings from Urban Bushland Management Conference Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council, NSW.
Catterall, C.P., Green, R.J., & Jones, D.N. (1991) Habitat use by birds across a forest – suburb interface in Brisbane: implications for corridors. In Saunders D.A.& Hobbs R.J.(eds.) Nature Conservation 2: The Role of Corridors Surrey, Beatty & Sons, Aust.
Chafer, C. (1994) Project Currawong – The Results. In Cumberland Bird Observers Club Newsletter Vol 15, No. 4.
Commonwealth of Australia (1996) The National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia’s Biological Diversity. Commonwealth Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Environment Committee & Rae, D.L. (undated copy) Biodiversity Policy Kiama Municipal Council.
Fox, M.D. & Adamson, D. (1986) The ecology of invasions. In Recher H.F., Lunney D. & Dunn, I. (eds.) A Natural Legacy : Ecology in Australia Pergamon Press, Aust.
Gilmore, A.M. (1985) The influence of vegetation structure on the density of insectivorous birds. In Keast A., Recher H.F., Ford H.& Saunders D.(eds.) Birds of the Eucalypt Forests and Woodlands Surrey Beatty & Sons, Aust.
Green, R.J. (1986) Native and exotic birds in the suburban habitat. In Ford H.A.& Paton D.C.(eds.) The Dynamic Partnership : Birds and Plants in Southern Australia Handbooks Committee of S.A. Government.
Greening Australia (1995) Local Greening Plans. A guide for vegetation and biodiversity management Greening Australia Ltd, Canberra.
Gullan, P.K. & Norris K.C. (1981) Floristic classifications, small mammals and birds. In Gillison A.N.& Anderson D.J. (eds.) Vegetation Classification in Australia CSIRO, Canberra, ACT.
Johnson, I. (1994) Australian Museum Nest Test. In Cumberland Bird Observers Club Newsletter Vol 15, No. 3.
Low, T. (1994) Invasion of the Savage Honeyeaters. In Australian Natural History Spring 1994.
Loyn, R.H. (1987) Effects of patch area and habitat on bird abundances, species numbers and tree health in fragmented Victorian forests. In Saunders D.A., Arnold G.W., Burbidge A.A., Hopkins A.J.M.(eds.) Nature Conservation : The Role of Remnants Surrey Beatty & Sons, Aust.
Majer, J. (1990) The Greening of Australia: Taking the Animals into Account. In proceedings from Sowing the Seeds : Direct Seeding & Natural Regeneration Conference Greening Australia, ACT.
Majer, J. & Recher, H.F. (1994) Revegetation in Urban Areas: An Opportunity for Wildlife Conservation. In proceedings from A Vision for a Greener City: The Role of Vegetation in Urban Environments Conference Greening Australia, ACT.
National Parks and Wildlife Service (1999) NSW Biodiversity Strategy. Prepared for the NSW State Government.
Ondinea, D. (1996) Wildlife Habitat Corridor Study for Waverley Council.
Ondinea, D. (1997) Habitat Protection and Restoration Guidelines for Cremorne Reserve Prepared for North Sydney Council and the Metropolitan Greenspace Program.
Sewell, S. (1992) The effects of residential development, forest fragmentation and loss of understorey on bushland bird communities in a subtropical city. Griffith University Hons. Thesis, Qld.
Wilson, Z. (1991) Birds and Gardens Survey Report No. 3 Bird Observers Club of Australia, Vic.
Young, D. (1993) Glossy Black Cockatoo Habitat Decline. In The Bird Observer No. 735.
Some useful wildlife and habitat books
Australian Natural History Series published by the University of NSW Press.(Includes books about echidnas, kangaroos, the Platypus, the Lyrebird, goannas, the Common Wombat, the Little Penguin, etc.)
Brunet, B. (1996) Spiderwatch – A Guide to Australian Spiders Reed Books Australia, Victoria.
Casey, K. (1996) Attracting Frogs to your Garden Kimberley Publications, Qld.
Clyne, D. (1990) How to Attract Butterflies to your Garden Reed Books Pty Ltd, NSW.
Coupar, P. and M. (1992) Flying Colours – common caterpillars, butterflies and moths of south-eastern Australia New South Wales University Press, NSW.
Elliot, R. (1994) Attracting wildlife to your garden Thomas C. Lothian Pty Ltd, Vic.
Grant, P. (2003) Habitat Gardens – attracting wildlife to your gardens ABC Books, NSW.
Griffiths, K. (1997) Frogs and Reptiles of the Sydney Region University of NSW Press, NSW.
Gould League of Victoria (1997) The Nestbox Book Gould League of Victoria.
Horne, P.A. and Crawford, D.J. (1996) Backyard Insects Melbourne University Press, Vic.
McDowall, R. M. (ed.) (1996) Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia (revised edition) Reed Books, NSW.
Parsons, H. (1999) Caring for Australian Birds Kangaroo Press, NSW.
Pizzey, G. (1988) A Garden of Birds Penguin Books Australia, Vic.
Pizzey, G. and Knight, F. (2003) Field Guide to the Birds of Australia (7th ed.) HarperCollins Publishers, NSW.
Robinson, M. (1993) A Field Guide to Frogs of Australia (from Port Augusta to Fraser Island including Tasmania) Reed Books, NSW.
Sainty, G., Abell, P. and Jacobs, S. (1989) Burnam Burnam’s WILDTHINGS Around Sydney Sainty & Associates, NSW.
Simpson, K. and Day, N. (1996) Field Guide to the Birds of Australia (5th ed.) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Vic.
Smith, B. (1995) Caring for Possums Kangaroo Press, NSW.
Strahan, R. (1995) A Photographic Guide to Mammals of Australia New Holland (Publishers), NSW.)
Swan, G., Shea, G. and Sadlier, R. (2004) A Field Guide to the Reptiles of New South Wales (2nd ed.) Reed New Holland, NSW.
Triggs, B. (1996) Tracks, Scats and Other Traces – A Field Guide to Australian Mammals Oxford University Press, Vic.
Walraven, E. (1990) Taronga Zoo’s Guide to the Care of Urban Wildlife Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd, NSW.
White, S. (1997) Caring for Australian Wildlife Australian Geographic, NSW.